Znanstvene raziskave o resničnem vplivu reje živali

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Spodaj navedeni podatki iz leta v leto in iz raziskave v raziskavo variirajo. Kljub temu ostaja dejstvo, da reja živali porabi ogromno naravnih bogastev in je največji onesnaževalec našega planeta.

 

Reja živali je odgovorna za 18 odstotkov izpustov toplogrednih plinov. To je več kot ves svetovni transport skupaj.
Fao.org. Spotlight: Livestock impacts on the environment.
http://www.fao.org/ag/magazine/0612sp1.htm


Transport je odgovoren za 13 % vseh izpustov toplogrednih plinov.
Izpusti toplogrednih plinov tega sektorja vključujejo predvsem fosilna goriva, uporabljena za cestni, železniški, zračni in pomorski promet.
Environmental Protection Agency. “Global Emissions.”
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/global.html


Metan je 25 do 100-krat bolj uničujoč kot CO2.
“Improved Attribution of Climate Forcing to Emissions.” Science Magazine.
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/326/5953/716.figures-only

 

Metan ima 86-krat večji vpliv na globalno segrevanje kot CO2.
NASA. “Methane: Its Role as a Greenhouse Gas.” Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/education/pdfs/podest_ghg.pdf


Reja živali je odgovorna za 65 % vseh izpustov dušikovega oksida – toplogrednega plina, ki je 296-krat bolj uničujoč kot ogljikov dioksid in ostane v atmosferi 150 let.
“Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2006.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a0701e/a0701e00.htm


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Reja živali letno porabi 128-287 trilijonov litrov vode.
Pimentel, David, et al. “Water Resources: Agricultural And Environmental Issues.” BioScience 54, no. 10 (2004): 909-18. http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/54/10/909.full,  Barber, N.L., “Summary of estimated water use in the United States in 2005: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2009–3098.”
http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2009/3098/

 

Poraba vode za namene pridobivanja nafte ali plina obsega 265-530 milijard litrov vode letno.
“Draft Plan to Study the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources.” EPA Office of Research and Development. United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2011.
http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/HFStudyPlanDraft_SAB_020711.pdf

 

Kmetijstvo je odgovorno za 80-90 % porabe vode v ZDA.
“USDA ERS – Irrigation & Water Use.” United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service. 2013.
http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/farm-practices-management/irrigation-water-use/background.aspx


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Za pridelovanje rastlin za krmo živali se porabi 56 % vode v ZDA.
Jacobson, Michael F. “More and Cleaner Water.” In Six Arguments for a Greener Diet: How a More Plant-based Diet Could save Your Health and the Environment.
Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2006.
http://www.cspinet.org/EatingGreen/pdf/arguments4.pdf

 

Za izdelavo enega hamburgerja se porabi 2.500 litrov vode, kar je enako kot je porabimo v dveh mesecih za tuširanje.
Catanese, Christina. “Virtual Water, Real Impacts.” Greenversations: Official Blog of the U.S. EPA. 2012.
http://blog.epa.gov/healthywaters/2012/03/virtual-water-real-impacts-world-water-day-2012/
“50 Ways to Save Your River.” Friends of the River.
http://www.friendsoftheriver.org/site/PageServer?pagename=50ways

 

9.500 litrov vode je potrebnih za pridelavo pol kilograma govedine.
Robbins, John. “2,500 Gallons, All Wet?” EarthSave
http://www.earthsave.org/environment/water.htm
Meateater’s Guide to Climate Change & Health.” Environmental Working Group.
http://www.ewg.org/meateatersguide/interactive-graphic/water/
“Water Footprint Assessment.” University of Twente, the Netherlands.
http://www.waterfootprint.org
Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street, 2013. Print

 

1.800 litrov vode je potrebnih za pridelavo pol kilograma jajc, 3.400 litrov vode je potrebnih za sir.
“Meateater’s Guide to Climate Change & Health.” Environmental Working Group.
http://www.ewg.org/meateatersguide/interactive-graphic/water/

 

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3.785 litrov vode je potrebnih za pridelavo 4 litrov mleka.
“Water trivia facts.” United States Environmental Protection Agency.
http://water.epa.gov/learn/kids/drinkingwater/water_trivia_facts.cfm#_edn11

 

5 % vode v ZDA porabijo gospodinjstva. 55 % vode v ZDA je porabljene za potrebe reje živali.
Jacobson, Michael F. “More and Cleaner Water.” In Six Arguments for a Greener Diet: How a More Plant-based Diet Could save Your Health and the Environment. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest, 2006.
http://www.cspinet.org/EatingGreen/pdf/arguments4.pdf
Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street, 2013. Print.


Mesna in mlečna industrija trenutno skupaj porabita skoraj tretjino (29 %) svežih zalog vode v svetovnem merilu.
“Freshwater Abuse and Loss: Where Is It All Going?” Forks Over Knives.
http://www.forksoverknives.com/freshwater-abuse-and-loss-where-is-it-all-go

 

Živinoreja pokriva 45 % skupnega površja Zemlje.
Thornton, Phillip, Mario Herrero, and Polly Ericksen. “Livestock and Climate Change.” Livestock Exchange, no. 3 (2011).
https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bitstream/handle/10568/10601/IssueBrief3.pdf

 

Reja živali je glavni razlog za izumiranje vrst, nastanek mrtvih območij oceana, onesnaženost vode in uničevanje naravnega habitata.
Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. . Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.
“What’s the Problem?” United States Environmental Protection Agency.
http://www.epa.gov/region9/animalwaste/problem.html
“Livestock’s Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options.” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2006.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a0701e/a0701e00.htm
“Fire Up the Grill for a Mouthwatering Red, White, and Green July 4th.” Worldwatch Institute.
http://www.worldwatch.org/fire-grill-mouthwatering-red-white-and-green-july-4th
Oppenlander, Richard A. “Biodiversity and Food Choice: A Clarification.” Comfortably Unaware. 2012
http://comfortablyunaware.com/blog/biodiversity-and-food-choice-a-clarification/
“Risk Assessment Evaluation for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations.” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Office of Research and Development. 2004.
http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=901V0100.txt

 

Živali, rejene za prehrano v ZDA, vsako minuto pridelajo 3 tisoč ton iztrebkov. To ne vključuje živali, rejenih zunaj nadzora Ministrstva za kmetijstvo ZDA ali na dvoriščih ter več milijard rib, gojenih v ribogojnicah ZDA.
“What’s the Problem?” United States Environmental Protection Agency.
http://www.epa.gov/region9/animalwaste/problem.html
“How To Manage Manure.” Healthy Landscapes.
http://www.uri.edu/ce/healthylandscapes/livestock/how_manure_overall.htm
335 million tons of “dry matter” is produced annually by livestock in the US.
“FY-2005 Annual Report Manure and Byproduct Utilization National Program 206.”
USDA Agricultural Research Service. 2008.
http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/programs/programs.htm?np_code=206&docid=13337

 

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Kmetija z 2.500 kravami mlekaricami pridela toliko odpadkov kot mesto s 411.000 prebivalci.
“Risk Assessment Evaluation for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations.” U.S. Environmental Protection Agency – Office of Research and Development. 2004.
http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=901V0100.txt

 

Tri četrtine svetovnih ribolovnih območij je izrabljenih.
“Overfishing: A Threat to Marine Biodiversity.” UN News Center.
http://www.un.org/events/tenstories/06/story.asp?storyid=800
“General Situation of World Fish Stocks.” United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
http://www.fao.org/newsroom/common/ecg/1000505/en/stocks.pdf

 

90 milijonov ton rib je letno ulovljenih iz naših oceanov.
“World Review of Fisheries and Aquaculture.” UNITED NATIONS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO). 2012.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2727e/i2727e01.pdf

 

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Ob vsakem kilogramu ujetih rib je povprečno nenamerno ujetih tudi 4,5 kilograma drugih morskih vrst, ki so zavržene kot stranski ulov.
“Discards and Bycatch in Shrimp Trawl Fisheries.”
UNITED NATIONS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO).
http://www.fao.org/docrep/W6602E/w6602E09.htm

 

Do 40 % (28,5 milijonov ton) ujetih rib na svetu je letno zavrženih.
Goldenberg, Suzanne. “America’s Nine Most Wasteful Fisheries Named.” The Guardian.
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/mar/20/americas-nine-most-wasteful-fisheries-named

 

Znanstveniki ocenjujejo, da ribiške ladje letno ubijejo do 650.000 kitov, delfinov in tjulnjev.
Goldenberg, Suzanne. “America’s Nine Most Wasteful Fisheries Named.” The Guardian.
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/mar/20/americas-nine-most-wasteful-fisheries-named

 

Letno je ujetih 100 milijonov ton rib.
Montaigne, fen. “Still waters: The global fish crisis.” National Geographic.
http://ocean.nationalgeographic.com/ocean/global-fish-crisis-article/

 

85 milijonov ton je maksimum ribjega ulova.
“World Review of Fisheries and Aquaculture.” UNITED NATIONS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (FAO). 2012.
http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2727e/i2727e01.pdf

 

Reja živali je odgovorna za 91 % uničenja Amazonskega pragozda.
Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. . Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.
Margulis, Sergio. Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Rainforest. Washington: World Bank Publications, 2003.
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/15060

 

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4.000-8.000 m2 deževnega gozda je izsekanega vsako sekundo.
“Avoiding Unsustainable Rainforest Wood.” Rainforest Relief.
http://www.rainforestrelief.org/What_to_Avoid_and_Alternatives/Rainforest_Wood.html
Facts about the rainforest.
http://www.savetherainforest.org/savetherainforest_007.htm
Rainforest facts.
http://www.rain-tree.com/facts.htm

 

Glavna razloga uničevanja deževnega gozda sta živina in poljščine.
“Livestock impacts on the environment.” Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations (fao). 2006.
http://www.fao.org/ag/magazine/0612sp1.htm

 

110 rastlinskih in živalskih vrst ter žuželk izumre vsak dan zaradi uničevanja deževnega gozda.
“Rainforest statistics and facts.” Save the amazon.
http://www.savetheamazon.org/rainforeststats.htm
Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

 

10,5 milijonov hektarov deževnega gozda je bilo izsekanih za produkcijo palmovega olja.
“Indonesia: palm oil expansion unaffected by forest moratorium.” USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. 2013.
http://www.pecad.fas.usda.gov/highlights/2013/06/indonesia/

 

55 milijonov hektarov deževnega gozda izsekanega za rejo živali.
“AMAZON DESTRUCTION.” MONGA BAY.
http://rainforests.mongabay.com/amazon/amazon_destruction.html

 

Krave izločijo 570 milijard litrov metana na dan.
Ross, Philip. “Cow farts have ‘larger greenhouse gas impact’ than previously thought; methane pushes climate change.” International Business Times. 2013.
http://www.ibtimes.com/cow-farts-have-larger-greenhouse-gas-impact-previously-thought-methane-pushes-climate-change-1487502

 

V ZDA nastane 130-krat več živalskih kot človeških odpadkov – 1,4 milijarde ton letno zaradi mesne industrije, kar je 5 ton živalskih odpadkov na osebo.
Animal agriculture: waste management practices. United States General Accounting Office.
http://www.gao.gov/archive/1999/rc99205.pdf

 

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8.000 – 20.000 m2 površine je uporabljenih na eno kravo.
Oppenlander, Richard A. Food Choice and Sustainability: Why Buying Local, Eating Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work.
Minneapolis, MN: Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

 

Povprečen Američan poje 95 kilogramov mesa letno.
Haney, Shaun. “How much do we eat?” Real agriculture. 2012. (276 lbs)
http://www.realagriculture.com/2012/05/how-much-meat-do-we-eat/
“US meat, poultry production & consumption” American Meat Institute. 2009. (233.9 lbs)
http://www.meatami.com/ht/a/GetDocumentAction/i/48781
Bernard, Neal. “Do we eat too much?” Huffington Post. (200 lbs)
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/neal-barnard-md/american-diet-do-we-eat-too-much_b_805980.html

 

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Skoraj polovica površine ZDA je namenjena reji živali. Ta panoga uporablja 30 % celotne površine Zemlje.
Versterby, Marlow; Krupa, Kenneth. “Major uses of land in the United States.” Updated 2012. USDA Economic Research Service.
http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/sb-statistical-bulletin/sb-973.aspx#.VAoXcl7E8dt
“Rearing cattle produces more greenhouse gases than driving cars, UN report warns.”
UN News Centre, 2006.
http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?newsID=20772

 

Tretjina planeta je dezertificirana, z živinorejo kot vodilnim členom.
“UN launches international year of deserts and desertification.”
UN news centre, 2006.
http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=17076#.VAodM17E8ds
Oppenlander, Richard A. Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

 

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70 milijard živali je letno vzrejenih na farmah. Več kot 6 milijonov živali je ubitih za hrano vsako uro.
A well-fed world. factory farms.
http://www.awfw.org/factory-farms/
Oppenlander, Richard A. Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

 

Na svetovni ravni ljudje popijejo 19 milijard litrov vode in pojedo 9,5 milijonov ton hrane vsak dan.
Izhaja iz grobega povprečja 2,8 litrov vode in 1,2 kilograma hrane na dan.

 

Vse krave na svetu popijejo 170 milijard litrov vode in pojedo 61 milijonov ton hrane dnevno.
Izhaja iz grobega povprečja 113,5 litrov vode in 41 kilogramov hrane na dan.


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Potrebna površina zemlje za pridelavo hrane 1 človeka za 1 leto:
Vegan: 650 m2
Vegetarijanec: 3-krat toliko kot vegan
Mesojedec: 18-krat toliko kot vegan
“Our food our future.” Earthsave.
http://www.earthsave.org/pdf/ofof2006.pdf


6.000 m2 je dovolj za pridelavo 17 ton rastlinske hrane.
6.000 m2 je dovolj za pridelavo 170 kilogramov mesa.
Oppenlander, Richard A. Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.

 

Oseba z veganskim načinom prehranjevanja proizvede 50 % manj ogljikovega dioksida, 1/11 nafte, 1/13 vode in 1/18 zemlje v primerjavi z mesojedo osebo.
CO2: “Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK.” Climactic change, 2014.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-014-1169-1/fulltext.html
Oil, water: “Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment.”
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2003.
http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/78/3/660S.full
Land: “Our food our future.” Earthsave.
http://www.earthsave.org/pdf/ofof2006.pdf

 

Oseba, ki se prehranjuje vegansko, vsak dan prihrani 4.200 litrov vode, 20 kilogramov žita, 2,8 m2 gozdne površine, 9 kilogramov CO2 in eno živalsko življenje.
“Water Footprint Assessment.” University of Twente, the Netherlands.
http://www.waterfootprint.org
Oppenlander, Richard A. Less Meat, and Taking Baby Steps Won’t Work. Minneapolis, MN : Langdon Street, 2013. Print.
“Measuring the daily destruction of the world’s rainforests.” Scientific American, 2009.
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/earth-talks-daily-destruction/
“Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK.” Climactic change, 2014.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10584-014-1169-1/fulltext.html
“Meat eater’s guide to climate change and health.” The Environmental Working Group.
http://static.ewg.org/reports/2011/meateaters/pdf/methodology_ewg_meat_eaters_guide_to_health_and_climate_2011.pdf

 

 

Vir: www.cowspiracy.com/facts (dostop do spletne strani: 13. 1. 2015)

Prevod in priredba: Monika Lavrič

Objavljeno: 15. januar 2015